Histone Lysine acetyltransferases

The acetylation of histones is mediated by Lysine acetyltrasferases (KATs). They catalyse the transfer of acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the e-amino group of specific lysine residues. This neutralises the positive charge of the lysines and hence the histone-DNA interaction is reduced. They can be cytoplasmic and nuclear. Some have the ability to acetylate free as well as nucleosomal histones. We found 19 unique proteins reported in humans that demonstrate the histone acetyltransferases activity. They can be broadly categorised into the following classes:

GCN5 family: e.g. KAT2a, KAT2b,

MYST (SAS/MOZ) family: e.g. MYST1, Kat5, MYST2, MYST3, MYST4,

SRC/p160 nuclear receptor coactivator family: e.g. NCOA1, NCOA3,

P300/CBP family: e.g. p300, CBP.

Lysine acetyltransferases are majorly involved in transcriptional activation. KAT2A and KAT5 have a significant role in DNA damage response. Many of these enzymes have non-histone targets like p53. Myst1 and PCAF are also important for unperturbed cell cycle progression. SRC1/3 functions under the influence of nuclear hormone mediated signalling and hence are altered in many cancers. Histone lysine acetyltransferases are implicated in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), familial dysautonomia, colorectal cancers, breast cancers and gastric cancers.

Cytogenetic map of Lysine acetyltransferases coding genes
Download table as Excel
Different histone Lysine acetyltransferases
Enzyme (UniprotKB recommended name) Coding gene/s Site of histone modification
Bifunctional protein NCOATMGEA5H4K8ac, H3K14ac
Chromodomain Y-like proteinCDYL
Circadian locomoter output cycles protein kaputCLOCKH3K14ac
CREB-binding proteinCREBBPH3K27ac, H3K56ac, H3K18ac, H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac
Elongator complex protein 3ELP3H3K9ac, H3K18ac
General transcription factor 3C polypeptide 4GTF3C4H3K14ac
Histone acetyltransferase KAT2AKAT2AH3K9ac, H3K14ac, H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H4K91ac
Histone acetyltransferase KAT2BKAT2B
Histone acetyltransferase KAT5KAT5H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H2AK5ac
Histone acetyltransferase MYST2MYST2H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac
Histone acetyltransferase MYST3MYST3H3K14ac
Histone acetyltransferase MYST4MYST4
Histone acetyltransferase p300EP300H3K27ac, H3K56ac, H4K5ac, H4K8ac, H4K12ac, H4K16ac, H3K18ac
Histone acetyltransferase type B catalytic subunitHAT1H4K5ac, H4K12ac, H2AK5ac
N-acetyltransferase 10NAT10
Nuclear receptor coactivator 1NCOA1
Nuclear receptor coactivator 3NCOA3
Probable histone acetyltransferase MYST1MYST1H4K16ac
Testis-specific chromodomain protein Y 1CDY1B, CDY1